Monday, May 15, 2017

Appeal to Authority! Flat Earth and the .... (hint, it rhymes with "news") PSI OP -I am starting to get it Sean Bobo!

"if you make this the full circle its the star of david and that has lots of 6's too"
From Flat Earth City twitter!

Here is a well known member of the  Universal Zetetic Society ,(flat earth) Mr E. W. Bullinger of the Trinitarian Bible Society.

E. W. Bullinger

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ethelbert William Bullinger
E.W. Bullinger.jpg
E. W. Bullinger
Born15 December 1837
CanterburyKent, England
Died6 June 1913 (aged 75)
London, England
EducationKing's College London
Occupationclergyman, Biblical scholar, and theologian
Known forThe Companion Bible
Ethelbert William Bullinger AKC (December 15, 1837 – June 6, 1913) was an Anglican clergyman, Biblical scholar, and ultradispensationalist theologian.

Life and work[edit]

He was born in CanterburyKent, England, the youngest of five children of William and Mary (Bent) Bullinger.[1] His family traced their ancestry back to Heinrich Bullinger, the Swiss Reformer.[2]
His formal theological training was at King's College London from 1860–1861, earning an Associate degree.[3] After graduation, on October 15, 1861, he married Emma Dobson, thirteen years his senior.[4] He later received a Doctor of Divinity degree in 1881 from Archibald Campbell TaitArchbishop of Canterbury who cited Bullinger's "eminent service in the Church in the department of Biblical criticism."[5]
Bullinger's career in the Church of England spanned 1861 until 1888. He began as associate curate in the parish of St. Mary Magdalene, Bermondsey in 1861,[4] and was ordained as a priest in the Church of England in 1862.[6] He served as parish curate in Tittleshall from 1863–1866; Notting Hill from 1866–1869; Leytonstone, 1869–1870; then Walthamstow until he became vicar of the newly established parish of St. Stephen's in 1874. He resigned his vicarage in 1888.[7]
In the spring of 1867, Bullinger became clerical secretary of the Trinitarian Bible Society, a position he would hold till his death in 1913.[8] Bullinger was editor of a monthly journal Things to Come subtitled A Journal of Biblical Literature, with Special Reference to Prophetic Truth. The Official Organ of Prophetic Conferences for over 20 years (1894–1915) and contributed many articles.
In the great Anglican debate of the Victorian era, he was a Low Churchman rather than High Church sacerdotalist.
His three major works were
  • A Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New Testament (1877) ISBN 0-8254-2096-2;
  • Figures of Speech Used in the Bible (1898) ISBN 0-8010-0559-0
  • Primary editor of The Companion Bible (published in 6 parts, 1909–1922) ISBN 0-8254-2177-2. It was completed after his death by his associates.
These works and many others remain in print (2007).
Bullinger's friends included well-known Zionist Dr. Theodor Herzl.[9] This was a personal friendship, but accorded with Bullinger's belief in a Biblical distinction between the Church and the Jewish People. Another close personal and theological friend was the famous Sir Robert Anderson.[10]

Trinitarian Bible Society[edit]

In 1867, at age 29, Bullinger accepted the office of clerical secretary of the Trinitarian Bible Society (TBS), an office which he exercised, with rare lapses due to illness in his later years, until his death. Accomplishments of TBS during his secretariat include:
  • Completion and publication of a Hebrew version of the New Testament under a TBS contract with Christian David Ginsburg after the demise of Isaac Salkinson.
  • Publication of Ginsburg's first edition of the Tanakh (Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible).
  • Formation (1885) of the Brittany Evangelical Mission Society under Pasteur LeCoat and translation of the Bible into the Breton language.[11]
  • First-ever Protestant Portuguese Reference Bible.
  • Distribution of Spanish-language Bibles in Spain after the Spanish Revolution of 1868.
Bullinger was also a practiced musician. As part of his support for the Breton Mission, he collected and harmonized several previously untranscribed Breton hymns on his visits to Trémel, Brittany.
Bullinger and Ginsburg parted ways, and another edition of Tanakh was published by the British and Foreign Bible Society.


Bullinger's views were often unique, and sometimes controversial. He is so closely tied to what is now called "Ultradispensationalism" that it is sometimes referred to as Bullingerism.[12] Noted dispensationalist Harry A. Ironside (1876–1951) declared Bullingerism an "absolutely Satanic perversion of the truth". [13] Bullingerism differs from mainstream dispensationalism with regard to the beginning of the church. Mainstream dispensationalism holds that the Church began at Pentecost as described early in the New Testament book entitled "Acts of the Apostles". In stark contrast, Bullinger held that the Church, which the Apostle Paul revealed as the Body of Christ, began after the close of Acts,[14] only revealed in the Prison Epistles of the Apostle Paul.[15] Other dispensationalists (often described as "mid-Acts" dispensationalists, i.e., Acts 9 or 13) hold that the Church, the Body of Christ, began at or shortly after Saul's conversion.
Bullinger described dispensations as divine "administrations" or "arrangements" wherein God deals at distinct time periods and with distinct groups of people "on distinct principles, and the doctrine relating to each must be kept distinct". He emphasizes that "Nothing but confusion can arise from reading into one dispensation that which relates to another.",[16] and lists seven dispensations:
Dispensational Scheme of Bullinger
Edenic state of InnocencePeriod "without law"Period under the LawPeriod of GraceEpoch of JudgmentMillennial AgeThe Eternal State of Glory
Genesis 1-3
ended with the expulsion from Eden
Genesis 4 to Exodus 19
ended with the flood and judgment on Babel
Exodus 20 to Acts 28
ended at the rejection by Israel of the grace of God
at the end of Acts
Church History
will end at the Day of the Lord
will end at the destruction of the Antichrist
Rev 20:4-6
will end with the destruction of Satan
Rev 20-22 will not end
Outside of ultradispensationalism, many other examples of Bullinger's unique views can be found. For example, Bullinger argues that Jesus was crucified with four, not just two, criminals.[17] Bullinger argued for mortality of the soul, the cessation of the soul between death and resurrection.[18] While Bullinger did not express any views concerning the final state of the lost, many of his followers did hold to annihilationism. Purportedly, Bullinger was also a member of the Universal Zetetic Society.[19]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ E. W. Bullinger: A Biography, Carey, Juanita, 2000, p.27
  2. Jump up^ E. W. Bullinger: A Biography, Carey, Juanita, 2000, p. 28-29
  3. Jump up^ E. W. Bullinger: A Biography, Carey, Juanita, 2000, p. 35
  4. Jump up to:a b E. W. Bullinger: A Biography, Carey, Juanita, 2000, p. 39
  5. Jump up^ E. W. Bullinger: A Biography, Carey, Juanita, 2000, pp.62
  6. Jump up^ E. W. Bullinger: A Biography, Carey, Juanita, 2000, p.40, states July 6, 1862.
  7. Jump up^ E. W. Bullinger: A Biography, Carey, Juanita, 2000, pp.42-47, 55, 65
  8. Jump up^ E. W. Bullinger: A Biography, Carey, Juanita, 2000, pp. 71-73
  9. Jump up^ Rhoades, Richard (10 July 2013).. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse. p. 243. ISBN 9781475974867.
  10. Jump up^
  11. Jump up^ "THE STORY OF PASTEUR LECOAT. The Breton Mission At Tremel" (PDF)As Dr. E. W. Bullinger so aptly points out in his book, The Story of the Breton Mission, M. Lecoat had returned to a land of a corrupt religion... an organised crusade was begun to graft the Romish religion on to that of the Druids. Many of the tall-standing stones were transformed into crosses, but, where the stone was too hard for the mason's chisel, crosses and crucifixes were fastened to them. Dr. Bullinger tells how that in one vear no less than five thousand were so transformed by the then Bishop of St. Pol de Leon. line feed character in |quote= at position 244 (help)
  12. Jump up^ Elwell, Walter A. (1984). Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House. ISBN 0-8010-3413-2. p. 1120
  13. Jump up^ Harry A. Ironside.Having had most intimate acquaintance with Bullingerism as taught by many for the last forty years, I have no hesitancy in saying that its fruits are evil. It has produced a tremendous crop of heresies throughout the length and breadth of this and other lands, it has divided Christians and wrecked churches and assemblies without number; it has lifted up its votaries in intellectual and spiritual pride to an appalling extent, so that they look with supreme contempt upon Christians who do not accept their peculiar views; and in most instances where it has been long tolerated, it has absolutely throttled Gospel effort at home and sown discord on missionary fields abroad. So true are these things of this system that I have no hesitancy in saying it is an absolutely Satanic perversion of the truth.
  14. Jump up^ E. W. Bullinger. "all the truth"...was reserved, and not permitted to be revealed, until the public proclaiming of "the kingdom" had ended, after the close of the "Acts". (See Notes on the Epp., specially Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians.) Then it was, at the commencement of this present interim period during which "blindness in part is happened to Israel" (Romans 11:25), that "the church which is His body" (Ephesians 1:22, 23) began to be formed "to the praise of the glory of His grace" (Ephesians 1:6, and Note on 15:14)
  15. Jump up^ E. W. Bullinger. It is ignorance of this Divinely given standard that results in the deplorable attempts to "square" the teachings of our Lord in the Gospels, which concern the kingdom of heaven (Ap. 114) and the Jewish Polity, with the teaching of Paul the apostle and bondservant of Jesus Christ in the Church Epistles. And so, when it is found that they cannot be "squared", we have the unseemly utterances and procedure of those who throw over the "Pauline doctrine", as they term it, in favor of "the teaching of Jesus", with contemptuous references to "the Hellenistic tendencies of Paul's mind", &c.; and such statements as "the Master's words must be preferred to a disciple's; "we must get back to Jesus", and so on.
  16. Jump up^ Nothing but confusion can arise from reading into one dispensation that which relates to another. To connect with God said and did in one dispensation with another, in which His administration was on an altogether different principle, is to ensure error. And finally, to take doctrine of late revelation and read it into the time when it was "hidden" leads to disaster. The nations, Israel the Chosen Nation, and the church (Ap 186) are each dealt with in distinct "times" and on distinct principles, and the doctrine relating to each must be kept distinct.
  17. Jump up^ E. W. Bullinger. . Mislead by tradition and the ignorance of Scripture on the part of medieval painters, it is the general belief that only two were crucified with the Lord. But Scripture does not say is clear [from cited Scriptural evidence] that there were four "others" crucified with the Lord...To show that we are not without evidence, even from tradition, we may state that there is a "Calvary" to be seen at Ploubezre near Lannion, in the Cotes-du-Nord, Brittany, known as Les Cinq Croix ("The Five Crosses"). There is a high cross in the center, with four lower ones, two on either side.
  18. Jump up^ Bullinger, E. W. (1902). The Rich Man and Lazarus or "The Intermediate State". London: Eyrie & Spottiswood.
  19. Jump up^ Christine Garwood (2007). Flat Earth. Macmillan.
Bullinger's friends included well-known Zionist Dr. Theodor Herzl.[9] This was a personal friendship, but accorded with Bullinger's belief in a Biblical distinction between the Church and the Jewish People. Another close personal and theological friend was the famous Sir Robert Anderson.[10]

Theodor Herzl

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Theodor Herzl
Theodor Herzl.jpg
Theodor Herzl
BornBenjamin Ze'ev Herzl
May 2, 1860
PestKingdom of Hungary
DiedJuly 3, 1904 (aged 44)
Resting place1904–1949: Döblinger Friedhof, Vienna, Austria
1949–present: Mt. HerzlJerusalem
31°46′26″N 35°10′50″E
Alma materUniversity of Vienna
OccupationJournalist, playwright, writer, political activist
Known forFather of modern political Zionism
Spouse(s)Julie Naschauer (m. 1889–1904)
Theodore Herzl signature.svg
Theodor Herzl (Hebrewתאודור הֶרְצֵל‎ Te'odor HertselHungarianHerzl Tivadar; May 2, 1860 – July 3, 1904), born Benjamin Ze'ev Herzl (Hebrewבִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב הֶרְצֵל‎ Binyamin Ze'ev Hertsel), also known in Hebrew as חוֹזֵה הַמְדִינָה‎, Chozeh HaMedinah (lit. "Visionary of the State") was an Austro-Hungarian journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer who was one of the fathers of modern political Zionism. Herzl formed the World Zionist Organization and promoted Jewish migration to Palestine in an effort to form a Jewish state. Though he died long before its establishment, he is generally considered a father of the State of Israel, formed in 1948.
While Herzl is often mistakenly identified as the first major Zionist activist, scholars such as Yehuda BibasZvi Hirsch Kalischer and Judah Alkalai were promoting Zionist ideas before him.

Early life[edit]

Herzl and his family, c. 1866–1873
He was born in Pest (now eastern part of Budapest), Kingdom of Hungary (now Hungary), to a secular Jewish family. His father's family were originally from Zimony (today ZemunSerbia).[1] He was the second child of Jeanette and Jakob Herzl, who were German-speaking, assimilated Jews.
Jakob Herzl (1836–1902), Herzl's father, was a highly successful businessman. Herzl had one sister, Pauline, a year older than he was, who died suddenly on February 7, 1878, of typhus.[2] Theodor lived with his family in a house next to the Dohány Street Synagogue (formerly known as Tabakgasse Synagogue) located in Belváros, the inner city of the historical old town of Pest, in the eastern section of Budapest.[3][4]
As a youth, Herzl aspired to follow in the footsteps of Ferdinand de Lesseps,[5] builder of the Suez Canal, but did not succeed in the sciences and instead developed a growing enthusiasm for poetry and the humanities. This passion later developed into a successful career in journalism and a less-celebrated pursuit of playwrighting.[6] According to Amos Elon,[7] as a young man, Herzl was an ardent Germanophile who saw the Germans as the best Kulturvolk (cultured people) in Central Europe and embraced the German ideal of Bildung, whereby reading great works of literature by Goethe and Shakespeare could allow one to appreciate the beautiful things in life, and thus become a morally better person (the Bildung theory tended to equate beauty with goodness).[8] Through Bildung, Herzl believed that Hungarian Jews such as himself could shake off their "shameful Jewish characteristics" caused by long centuries of impoverishment and oppression, and become civilized Central Europeans, a true Kulturvolk along the German lines.[8]
In 1878, after the death of his sister, Pauline, the family moved to Vienna, Austria-Hungary, and lived in the 9th district, Alsergrund. At the University of Vienna, Herzl studied law. As a young law student, Herzl became a member of the German nationalist Burschenschaft (fraternity) Albia, which had the motto Ehre, Freiheit, Vaterland ("Honor, Freedom, Fatherland"). He later resigned in protest at the organisation's antisemitism.[9]
After a brief legal career in the University of Vienna and Salzburg,[10] he devoted himself to journalism and literature, working as a journalist for a Viennese newspaper and a correspondent for Neue Freie Presse, in Paris, occasionally making special trips to London and Istanbul. He later became literary editor of Neue Freie Presse, and wrote several comedies and dramas for the Viennese stage. His early work did not focus on Jewish life. It was of the feuilleton order, descriptive rather than political.[11]

Zionist intellectual and activist[edit]

Theodor Herzl in Basel, 1897

A plaque marking the birthplace of Theodor Herzl, Dohány Street SynagogueBudapest.
As the Paris correspondent for Neue Freie Presse, Herzl followed the Dreyfus affair, a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. It was a notorious anti-semitic incident in France in which a Jewish French army captain was falsely convicted of spying for Germany. Herzl was witness to mass rallies in Paris following the Dreyfus trial. There has been some controversy surrounding the impact that this event had on Herzl and his conversion to Zionism. Herzl himself stated that the Dreyfus case turned him into a Zionist and that he was particularly affected by chants of "Death to the Jews!" from the crowds. This had been the widely held belief for some time. However, some modern scholars now believe that due to little mention of the Dreyfus affair in Herzl's earlier accounts and a seemingly contrary reference he made in them to shouts of "Death to the traitor!" that he may have exaggerated the influence it had on him in order to create further support for his goals.[12][13]
Jacques Kornberg claims that the Dreyfus influence was a myth that Herzl did not feel necessary to deflate and that he also believed that Dreyfus was guilty.[14] Another modern claim is that, while upset by antisemitism evident in French society, Herzl, like most contemporary observers, initially believed in Dreyfus' guilt and only claimed to have been inspired by the affair years later when it had become an international cause célèbre and that, rather, it was the rise to power of the anti-Semitic demagogue Karl Lueger in Vienna in 1895 that seems to have had a greater effect on Herzl, before the pro-Dreyfus campaign had fully emerged. It was at this time that Herzl wrote his play "The New Ghetto," which shows the ambivalence and lack of real security and equality of emancipated, well-to-do Jews in Vienna.
According to Henry Wickham Steed, Herzl was initially "fanatically devoted to the propagation of Jewish-German 'Liberal' assimilationist doctrine".[15]However, Herzl came to reject his early ideas regarding Jewish emancipation and assimilation and to believe that the Jews must remove themselves from Europe.[16] Herzl grew to believe that antisemitism could not be defeated or cured, only avoided, and that the only way to avoid it was the establishment of a Jewish state.[17] In June, 1895, he wrote in his diary: "In Paris, as I have said, I achieved a freer attitude toward anti-semitism ... Above all, I recognized the emptiness and futility of trying to 'combat' anti-semitism." Herzl's editors of Neue Freie Presse refused any publication of his Zionist political activities. A mental clash gripped Herzl, between the craving for literary success and a desire to act as a public figure.[18] Around this time, Herzl started writing pamphlets about 'A Jewish State'. Herzl claimed that these pamphlets resulted in the establishment of the Zionist Movement, and they did play a large role in the movement's rise and success.[19] His testimony before the British Royal Commission reflected his fundamental, romantic liberal view on life as the 'Problem of the Jews'.
Beginning in late 1895, Herzl wrote Der Judenstaat (The State of the Jews), which was published February 1896 to immediate acclaim and controversy. The book argued that the Jewish people should leave Europe if they wished to, either for Argentina or, preferably, for Palestine, their historic homeland. The Jews possessed a nationality; all they were missing was a nation and a state of their own.[20] Only through a Jewish state could they avoid antisemitism, express their culture freely and practice their religion without hindrance.[20] Herzl’s ideas spread rapidly throughout the Jewish world and attracted international attention.[21] Supporters of existing Zionist movements, such as the Hovevei Zion, immediately allied themselves with him, but establishment Jewry vilified him and considered his ideas as a threat to their attempts at integration and a rebellion against God.

A philosophy for a homeland[edit]

In Der Judenstaat he writes:
"The Jewish question persists wherever Jews live in appreciable numbers. Wherever it does not exist, it is brought in together with Jewish immigrants. We are naturally drawn into those places where we are not persecuted, and our appearance there gives rise to persecution. This is the case, and will inevitably be so, everywhere, even in highly civilised countries—see, for instance, France—so long as the Jewish question is not solved on the political level."[22]
The book concludes:
Therefore I believe that a wondrous generation of Jews will spring into existence. The Maccabeans will rise again.
Let me repeat once more my opening words: The Jews who wish for a State will have it.
We shall live at last as free men on our own soil, and die peacefully in our own homes.
The world will be freed by our liberty, enriched by our wealth, magnified by our greatness.
And whatever we attempt there to accomplish for our own welfare, will react powerfully and beneficially for the good of humanity.[23]
Herzl considered himself to be an atheist and even his new attachment to Jewish nationalism was neither motivated nor accompanied by a return to Judaism.[24]

Diplomatic liaison with the Ottomans[edit]

Herzl began to energetically promote his ideas, continually attracting supporters, Jewish and non-Jewish. According to Norman Rose, Herzl "mapped out for himself the role of martyr ... as the Parnell of the Jews".[25]
On March 10, 1896, Herzl was visited by Reverend William Hechler, the Anglican minister to the British Embassy. Hechler had read Herzl's Der Judenstaat, and the meeting became central to the eventual legitimization of Herzl and Zionism.,[26] Herzl later wrote in his diary, "Next we came to the heart of the business. I said to him: (Theodor Herzl to Rev. William Hechler) I must put myself into direct and publicly known relations with a responsible or non responsible ruler – that is, with a minister of state or a prince. Then the Jews will believe in me and follow me. The most suitable personage would be the German Kaiser."[27] Hechler arranged an extended audience with Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden, in April, 1896. The Grand Duke was the uncle of the German Emperor Wilhelm II. Through the efforts of Hechler and the Grand Duke, Herzl publicly met Wilhelm II in 1898. The meeting significantly advanced Herzl's and Zionism's legitimacy in Jewish and world opinion.[28]
In May 1896, the English translation of Der Judenstaat appeared in London as The Jewish State. Herzl had earlier confessed to his friend Max Bodenheimer that he "wrote what I had to say without knowing my predecessors, and it can be assumed that I would not have written it [Der Judenstaat] had I been familiar with the literature".[29]

A sketch in Herzl's Diary of a proposed flag for the Zionist movement.

Herzl on board a vessel reaching the shores of Palestine, 1898
In Istanbul, Ottoman Empire, June 15, 1896, Herzl saw an opportunity. With the assistance of Count Filip Michał Newleński,[30] a sympathetic Polish émigré with political contacts in the Ottoman Court, Herzl attempted to meet Sultan Abdulhamid II in order to present his solution of a Jewish State to the Sultan directly. He failed to obtain an audience but did succeed in visiting a number of highly placed individuals, including the Grand Vizier, who received him as a journalist representing the Neue Freie Presse. Herzl presented his proposal to the Grand Vizier: the Jews would pay the Turkish foreign debt and attempt to help regulate Turkish finances if they were given Palestine as a Jewish homeland under Turkish rule. Prior to leaving Istanbul, June 29, 1896, Newleński obtained for Herzl a symbolic medal of honor.[31] The medal, the "Commander's Cross of the Order of the Medjidie", was a public relations affirmation for Herzl and the Jewish world of the seriousness of the negotiations.
Five years later, May 17, 1901, Herzl did meet with Sultan Abdulhamid II,[32] but the Sultan refused Theodor Herzl's offer to consolidate the Ottoman debt in exchange for a charter allowing the Zionists access to Palestine.[33]
Returning from Istanbul, Herzl traveled to London to report back to the Maccabeans, a proto-Zionist group of established English Jews led by Colonel Albert Goldsmid. In November 1895 they received him with curiosity, indifference and coldness. Israel Zangwill bitterly opposed Herzl, but after Istanbul Goldsmid agreed to support Herzl. In London's East End, a community of primarily Yiddish speaking recent Eastern European Jewish immigrants, Herzl addressed a mass rally of thousands on July 12, 1896 and was received with acclaim. They granted Herzl the mandate of leadership for Zionism. Within six months this mandate had been expanded throughout Zionist Jewry: the Zionist movement grew rapidly.

A World Congress[edit]

In 1897, at considerable personal expense, he founded Die Welt of Vienna, Austria-Hungary, and planned the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland. He was elected president (a position he held until his death in 1904), and in 1898 he began a series of diplomatic initiatives to build support for a Jewish country. He was received by Wilhelm II on several occasions, one of them in Jerusalem, and attended the Hague Peace Conference, enjoying a warm reception from many statesmen there.
His work on Autoemancipation was pre-figured by a similar conclusion drawn by Marx's friend Moses Hess, in Rome and Jerusalem (1862). Pinkser had never yet read it, but was aware of the distant and far off Hibbat Zion. Herzl's philosophical instruction highlighted the weaknesses and vulnerabilities. To Herzl each dictator or leader had a nationalistic identity, even down to the Irish from Wolfe Tone onwards. He was drawn to the mawkishness of Judaism rendered distinctively as German. But he remained convinced that Germany was the centre (Hauptsitz) of anti-semitism rather than France. In a much quoted aside he noted "If there is one thing I should like to be, it is a member of old Prussian nobility" ([34]Herzl appealed to the nobility of Jewish England - the Rothschilds, Sir Samuel Montagu, later cabinet minister, to the Chief Rabbis of France and Vienna, the railroad magnate, Baron Hirsch.
He fared best with Israel Zangwill, and Max Nordau. They were both well-known writers or 'men of letters'—imagination that engenders understanding. Hirsch's correspondence led nowhere. Baron Albert Rothschild had little to do with the Jews[35] Herzl was disliked by the bankers (Finanzjuden) and detested them. Herzl was defiant of their social authority. He also shared Pinkser's pessimistic opinion that the Jews had no future in Europe; that they were too anti-semitic to tolerate because each country in Europe had tried anti-Semitic Assimilation. In Berlin they said Juden raus in a well worn phrase. Herzl therefore advocated a mass exodus from Europe to the Judenstaat. Pinkser's manifesto was a cry for help; a warning to others Mahnruf, a call for attention to their plight. Herzl's vision was less about mental states of Jewry, and more about delivering prescriptive answers about land. "The idea that i have developed is a very old one; it is the restoration of the Jewish State",[36] was a follow-up of Pinkser's early weaker version Mahnruf an seine Stammesgenossen von einem nassichen Juden[37]

Herzl, Zionism and the Holy Land[edit]

Herzl visited Jerusalem for the first time in October 1898.[38] He deliberately coordinated his visit with that of Wilhelm II to secure what he thought had been prearranged with the aid of Rev. William Hechler, public world power recognition of himself and Zionism.[39] Herzl and Wilhelm II first met publicly on October 29, at Mikveh Israel, near present-day Holon, Israel. It was a brief but historic meeting.[26] He had a second formal, public audience with the emperor at the latter's tent camp on Street of the Prophets in Jerusalem on November 2, 1898.[28][40][41] The English Zionist Federation, the local branch of the World Zionist Organization was founded in 1899, that Herzl had established in Austria in 1897.[42]
In 1902–03, Herzl was invited to give evidence before the British Royal Commission on Alien Immigration. His appearance brought him into close contact with members of the British government, particularly with Joseph Chamberlain, then secretary of state for the colonies, through whom he negotiated with the Egyptian government for a charter for the settlement of the Jews in Al 'Arish in the Sinai Peninsula, adjoining southern Palestine.
In 1903, Herzl attempted to obtain support for the Jewish homeland from Pope Pius X, an idea broached at 6th Zionist Congress. Palestine could offer a safe refuge for those fleeing persecution in Russia.[43] Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val ordained that the Church's policy was explained non possumus on such matters, decreeing that as long as the Jews denied the divinity of Christ, the Catholics could not make a declaration in their favour.[44] The pogroms included 47 Jews murdered at Kishinev, and hundreds more injured, their property looted and destroyed. The delegates to the Congress backed Herzl's line of argument. A vociferous minority of opposition came from those who thought adoption of a Ugandan Plan over Palestine was a sell-out. Still later the East African Scheme failed, dying with Herzl himself. It was taken off the agenda in 1905. Yet another nationalistic splinter group with Zionist aspirations, in England called the Jewish Territorial Association (JTO) was founded.
After the failure of that scheme, which took him to Cairo, he received, through Leopold Greenberg, an offer (August 1903) from the British government to facilitate a large Jewish settlement, with autonomous government and under British suzerainty, in British East Africa. At the same time, the Zionist movement was threatened by the Russian government. Accordingly, Herzl visited St. Petersburg and was received by Sergei Witte, then finance minister, and Viacheslav Plehve, minister of the interior, the latter placing on record the attitude of his government toward the Zionist movement. On that occasion Herzl submitted proposals for the amelioration of the Jewish position in Russia. He published the Russian statement, and brought the British offer, commonly known as the "Uganda Project", before the Sixth Zionist Congress (Basel, August 1903), carrying the majority (295:178, 98 abstentions) on the question of investigating this offer, after the Russian delegation stormed out.[45] In 1905 the 6th Zionist Congress, after investigations, decided to decline the British offer and firmly committed itself to a Jewish homeland in Palestine.[46] A Heimstatte—a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine secured by public law.[47]

Death and burial[edit]

Honor guard stands beside Herzl's coffin on Mount Herzl in Jerusalem

Herzl's grave in 1921

First grave of Theodor Herzl in the cemetery of DöblingVienna.
Herzl did not live to see the rejection of the Uganda plan. At 5 p.m. July 3, 1904, in Edlach, a village inside Reichenau an der RaxLower Austria, Theodor Herzl, having been diagnosed with a heart issue earlier in the year, died of cardiac sclerosis. A day before his death, he told the Reverend William H. Hechler: "Greet Palestine for me. I gave my heart's blood for my people."[48]
His will stipulated that he should have the poorest-class funeral without speeches or flowers and he added, "I wish to be buried in the vault beside my father, and to lie there till the Jewish people shall take my remains to Israel".[49] Nevertheless, some six thousand followed Herzl's hearse, and the funeral was long and chaotic. Despite Herzl's request that no speeches be made, a brief eulogy was delivered by David Wolffsohn. Hans Herzl, then thirteen, read the kaddish.[50]
In 1949, his remains were moved from Vienna to be reburied on the top of Mount Herzl in Jerusalem, named in his memory.


Herzl as a child with his mother Janet and sister Pauline
Herzl's grandfathers, both of whom he knew, were more closely related to traditional Judaism than were his parents. In Zemun (Zemlin), his grandfather Simon Loeb Herzl "had his hands on" one of the first copies of Judah Alkalai's 1857 work prescribing the "return of the Jews to the Holy Land and renewed glory of Jerusalem". Contemporary scholars conclude that Herzl's own implementation of modern Zionism was undoubtedly influenced by that relationship. Herzl's grandparents' graves in Semlin can still be visited. Alkalai himself witnessed the rebirth of Serbia from Ottoman rule in the early and mid-19th century and was inspired by the Serbian uprising and subsequent re-creation of Serbia.
In June 25, 1889, he married Julie Naschauer, daughter of a wealthy Jewish businessman in Vienna. The marriage was unhappy, although three children were born to it: Paulina, Hans and Margaritha (Trude). Herzl had a strong attachment to his mother, who was unable to get along with his wife. These difficulties were increased by the political activities of his later years, in which his wife took little interest.[51]

Herzl and his children in 1900

Herzl and his children on a trip in 1900

Herzl Statue in Dimona
His daughter Paulina suffered from mental illness and drug addiction. She died in 1930 at the age of 40 of a heroin overdose.[52]
His only son Hans was given a secular upbringing and Herzl notably refused to allow him to be circumcised.[53][54][55] After Herzl's early death, Hans successively converted[56] and became a Baptist, then a Catholic, and flirted with other Protestant denominations. He sought a personal salvation for his own religious needs and a universal solution, as had his father, to Jewish suffering caused by antisemitism. Hanz Herzl voluntarily had himself circumcised May 29, 1905;[57] Hans shot himself to death on the day of his sister Paulina's funeral; he was 39 years old.[58]
Hans left a suicide note explaining his reasons.
"A Jew remains a Jew, no matter how eagerly he may submit himself to the disciplines of his new religion, how humbly he may place the redeeming cross upon his shoulders for the sake of his former coreligionists, to save them from eternal damnation: a Jew remains a Jew ... I can't go on living. I have lost all trust in God. All my life I've tried to strive for the truth, and must admit today at the end of the road that there is nothing but disappointment. Tonight I have said Kaddish for my parents—and for myself, the last descendant of the family. There is nobody who will say Kaddish for me, who went out to find peace—and who may find peace soon ... My instinct has latterly gone all wrong, and I have made one of those irreparable mistakes, which stamp a whole life with failure. Then it is best to scrap it."[59][60]
In 2006 the remains of Paulina and Hans were moved from Bordeaux, France, and reburied not far from their father on Mt. Herzl.[58][61][62]
Paulina and Hans had little contact with their young sister, "Trude" (Margarethe, 1893–1943). She married Richard Neumann, a man 17 years her elder. Neumann lost his fortune in the Great Depression. Burdened by the steep costs of hospitalizing Trude, who suffered from severe bouts of depressive illness that required repeated hospitalization, the Neumanns' financial life was precarious. The Nazis sent Trude and Richard to the Theresienstadt concentration camp where they died. Her body was burned.[58] (Her mother, who died in 1907, was cremated. Her ashes were lost by accident.)
At the request of his father Richard Neumann, Trude's son (Herzl's only grandchild), Stephan Theodor Neumann, (1918–1946) was sent for his safety to England in 1935 to the Viennese Zionists and the Zionist Executive in Israel based there .[63] The Neumanns deeply feared for the safety of their only child as violent Austrian antisemitism expanded. In England he read extensively about his grandfather. Zionism had not been a significant part of his background in Austria, but Stephan became an ardent Zionist, was the only descendant of Theodor Herzl to have become one. Anglicizing his name to Stephen Norman, during World War II, Norman enlisted in the British Army rising to the rank of Captain in the Royal Artillery. In late 1945 and early 1946 he took the opportunity to visit the British Mandate of Palestine "to see what my grandfather had started." He wrote in his diary extensively about his trip. What most impressed him was the "look of freedom" on the faces of the children, which were not like the sallow look of those from the concentration camps of Europe. He wrote upon leaving Israel, "My visit to Israel is over ... It is said that to go away is to die a little. And I know that when I went away from Erez Israel, I died a little. But sure, then, to return is somehow to be reborn. And I will return."[64]
Norman planned to return to Israel following his military discharge. The Zionist Executive had worked for years through Dr. L. Lauterbach to get Norman to come to Israel as a symbol of Herzl's returning.[65]
Operation Agatha of June 29, 1946, precluded that possibility: British military and police fanned out throughout Israel and arrested Jewish activists. About 2,700 individuals were arrested. On July 2, 1946, Norman wrote to Mrs.Stybovitz-Kahn in Haifa. Her father, Jacob Kahn, had been a good friend of Herzl and a well-known Dutch banker before the war. Norman wrote, "I intend to go to Israel on a long visit in the future, in fact as soon as passport & permit regulations permit. But the dreadful news of the last two days have done nothing to make this easier."[66] He never did return to Israel.

Artistic face of Herzl
Demobilized from the British army in late spring 1946, without money or job and despondent about his future, Norman followed the advice of Dr.Selig Brodetsky. Dr. H. Rosenblum, the editor of Haboker, a Tel Aviv daily that later became Yediot Aharonot, noted in late 1945 that Dr. Weizmann deeply resented the sudden intrusion and reception of Norman when he arrived in Britain. Norman spoke to the Zionist conference in London. Haboker reported, "Something similar happened at the Zionist conference in London. The Chairman suddenly announced to the meeting that in the hall there was Herzl's grandson who wanted to say a few words. The introduction was made in an absolutely dry and official way. It was felt that the chairman looked for—and found—some stylistic formula which would satisfy the visitor without appearing too cordial to anybody among the audience. In spite of that there was a great thrill in the hall when Norman mounted on the platform of the praesidium. At that moment, Dr.Weizmann turned his back on the speaker and remained in this bodily and mental attitude until the guest had finished his speech."[67] The 1945 article went on to note that Norman was snubbed by Weizmann and by some in Israel during his visit because of ego, jealousy, vanity and their own personal ambitions. Brodetsky was Chaim Weizman's principal ally and supporter in Britain.
Chaim Weizmann secured for Norman a desirable but minor position with the British Economic and Scientific Mission in Washington, D.C. In late August 1946, shortly after arriving in Washington, he learned that his family had perished. Norman had re-established contact with his old nanny in Vienna, Wuth, who told him what happened.[68] Norman became deeply depressed over the fate of his family and his inability to help the Jewish people "languishing" in the European camps. Unable to endure his suffering any further, he jumped to his death from the Massachusetts Avenue Bridge in Washington, D.C. on November 26, 1946.
Norman was buried by the Jewish Agency in Washington, D.C. His tombstone read simply, 'Stephen Theodore Norman, Captain Royal Artillery British Army, Grandson of Theodor Herzl, April 21, 1918 − November 26, 1946'.[69] Norman was the only member of Herzl's family to have been a Zionist, been to Israel and openly stated his desire to return.
On December 5, 2007, sixty-one years after his death, he was reburied with his family on Mt. Herzl, in the Plot for Zionist Leaders.[70][71][72][73][74]
The Stephen Norman garden on Mount Herzl in Jerusalem—the only memorial in the world to a Herzl other than Theodor Herzl—was dedicated on May 2, 2012 by the Jerusalem Foundation and the Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation.[75] On one of the walls of the garden, located between the Herzl Museum and the Herzl Educational Center, is a quote from Norman from when he visited Israel in 1946. The quote sums up the meaning of Zionism and Israel.
"You will be amazed at the Jewish Youth in Palestine ... they have the look of freedom."


Title page of Der Judenstaat. 1896

Title page of Altneuland. 1902
Beginning in late 1895, Herzl wrote Der Judenstaat (The State of the Jews). The small book was initially published February 14, 1896, in Leipzig, Germany, and Vienna, Austria, by M. Breitenstein's Verlags-Buchhandlung. It is subtitled "Versuch einer modernen Lösung der Judenfrage", ("Proposal of a modern solution for the Jewish question"). Der Judenstaat proposed the structure and beliefs of what political Zionism was.[76]
Herzl's solution was the creation of a Jewish state. In the book he outlined his reasoning for the need to reestablish the historic Jewish state.
"The idea I have developed in this pamphlet is an ancient one: It is the restoration of the Jewish State ..."
"The decisive factor is our propelling force. And what is that force? The plight of the Jews ... I am profoundly convinced that I am right, though I doubt whether I shall live to see myself proved so. Those who today inaugurate this movement are unlikely to live to see its glorious culmination. But the very inauguration is enough to inspire in them a high pride and the joy of an inner liberation of their existence ..."
"The plan would seem mad enough if a single individual were to undertake it; but if many Jews simultaneously agree on it, it is entirely reasonable, and its achievement presents no difficulties worth mentioning. The idea depends only on the number of its adherents. Perhaps our ambitious young men, to whom every road of advancement is now closed, and for whom the Jewish state throws open a bright prospect of freedom, happiness, and honor, perhaps they will see to it that this idea is spread ..."
"It depends on the Jews themselves whether this political document remains for the present a political romance. If this generation is too dull to understand it rightly, a future, finer, more advanced generation will arise to comprehend it. The Jews who will try it shall achieve their State; and they will deserve it ..."
"I consider the Jewish question neither a social nor a religious one, even though it sometimes takes these and other forms. It is a national question, and to solve it we must first of all establish it as an international political problem to be discussed and settled by the civilized nations of the world in council.
"We are a people—one people.
"We have sincerely tried everywhere to merge with the national communities in which we live, seeking only to preserve the faith of our fathers. It is not permitted us. In vain are we loyal patriots, sometimes superloyal; in vain do we make the same sacrifices of life and property as our fellow citizens; in vain do we strive to enhance the fame of our native lands in the arts and sciences, or her wealth by trade and commerce. In our native lands where we have lived for centuries we are still decried as aliens, often by men whose ancestors had not yet come at a time when Jewish sighs had long been heard in the country ..."
"Oppression and persecution cannot exterminate us. No nation on earth has endured such struggles and sufferings as we have. Jew-baiting has merely winnowed out our weaklings; the strong among us defiantly return to their own whenever persecution breaks out ..."
"Wherever we remain politically secure for any length of time, we assimilate. I think this is not praiseworthy ..."
"Israel is our unforgettable historic homeland ..."
"Let me repeat once more my opening words: The Jews who will it shall achieve their State. We shall live at last as free men on our own soil, and in our own homes peacefully die. The world will be liberated by our freedom, enriched by our wealth, magnified by our greatness. And whatever we attempt there for our own benefit will redound mightily and beneficially to the good of all mankind."[77]
His last literary work, Altneuland (in English: The Old New Land, 1902), is a novel devoted to Zionism. Herzl occupied his free time for three years in writing what he believed might be accomplished by 1923. Though the form is that of a romance, It is less a novel than a serious forecast of what could be done within one generation. The keynotes of the story are love of Zion and insistence upon the fact that the suggested changes in life are not utopian but to be brought about simply by grouping all the best efforts and ideals of every race and nation. Each such effort is quoted and referred to in such a manner as to show that Altneuland, though blossoming through the skill of the Jew, will in reality be the product of the benevolent efforts of all the members of the human family.
Herzl envisioned a Jewish state that combined modern Jewish culture with the best of the European heritage. Thus a "Palace of Peace" would be built in Jerusalem to arbitrate international disputes, and at the same time the Temple would be rebuilt on modern principles. Herzl did not envision the Jewish inhabitants of the state as being religious, but there was respect for religion in the public sphere. He also assumed that many languages would be spoken, and that Hebrew would not be the main tongue. Proponents of a Jewish cultural rebirth, such as Ahad Ha'am, were critical of Altneuland.
In Altneuland, Herzl did not foresee any conflict between Jews and Arabs. One of the main characters in Altneuland is a Haifa engineer, Reshid Bey, who is one of the leaders of the "New Society". He is very grateful to his Jewish neighbors for improving the economic condition of Israel and sees no cause for conflict. All non-Jews have equal rights, and an attempt by a fanatical rabbi to disenfranchise the non-Jewish citizens of their rights fails in the election which is the center of the main political plot of the novel.[78]
Herzl also envisioned the future Jewish state to be a "third way" between capitalism and socialism, with a developed welfare program and public ownership of the main natural resources. Industry, agriculture and trade were organized on a cooperative basis. Along with many other progressive Jews of the day, such as Emma LazarusLouis BrandeisAlbert Einstein, and Franz Oppenheimer, Herzl desired to enact the land reforms proposed by the American political economist Henry George. Specifically, they called for a land value tax.[79] He called his mixed economic model "Mutualism", a term derived from French utopian socialist thinking. Women would have equal voting rights—as they had in the Zionist movement from the Second Zionist Congress onwards.
In Altneuland, Herzl outlined his vision for a new Jewish state in the Land of Israel. He summed up his vision of an open society:
"It is founded on the ideas which are a common product of all civilized nations ... It would be immoral if we would exclude anyone, whatever his origin, his descent, or his religion, from participating in our achievements. For we stand on the shoulders of other civilized peoples ... What we own we owe to the preparatory work of other peoples. Therefore, we have to repay our debt. There is only one way to do it, the highest tolerance. Our motto must therefore be, now and ever: 'Man, you are my brother.'"[80]
"If you will it, it is no dream." a phrase from Herzl's book Old New Land, became a popular slogan of the Zionist movement—the striving for a Jewish National Home in Israel.[81]
In his novel, Herzl wrote about an electoral campaign in the new state. He directed his wrath against the nationalist party, which wished to make the Jews a privileged class in Israel. Herzl regarded that as a betrayal of Zion, for Zion was identical to him with humanitarianism and tolerance—and that this was true in politics as well as religion. Herzl wrote:
"Matters of faith were once and for all excluded from public influence ... Whether anyone sought religious devotion in the synagogue, in the church, in the mosque, in the art museum, or in a philharmonic concert, did not concern society. That was his [own] private affair."[80]
Altneuland was written both for Jews and non-Jews: Herzl wanted to win over non-Jewish opinion for Zionism.[82] When he was still thinking of Argentina as a possible venue for massive Jewish immigration, he wrote in his diary:
"When we occupy the land, we shall bring immediate benefits to the state that receives us. We must expropriate gently the private property on the estates assigned to us. We shall try to spirit the penniless population across the border by procuring employment for it in the transit countries, while denying it any employment in our country. The property owners will come over to our side. Both the process of expropriation and the removal of the poor must be carried out discretely and circumspectly ... It goes without saying that we shall respectfully tolerate persons of other faiths and protect their property, their honor, and their freedom with the harshest means of coercion. This is another area in which we shall set the entire world a wonderful example ... Should there be many such immovable owners in individual areas [who would not sell their property to us], we shall simply leave them there and develop our commerce in the direction of other areas which belong to us",[83]
Herzl's draft of a charter for a Jewish-Ottoman Land Company (JOLC) gave the JOLC the right to obtain land in Israel by giving its owners comparable land elsewhere in the Ottoman empire.
The name "Tel Aviv" was the title given to the Hebrew translation of Altneuland by the translator, Nahum Sokolow. This name comes from Ezekiel 3:15 and means tell—an ancient mound formed when a town is built on its own debris for thousands of years—of spring. The name was later applied to the new town built outside Jaffa that became Tel Aviv-Yafo the second-largest city in Israel. The nearby city to the north, Herzliya, was named in honour of Herzl.

List of works[edit]

Stephen Norman Garden Marker Mt. Herzl, Jerusalem.jpg
  • Books
  • Plays[84][85]
    • Kompagniearbeit, comedy in one act, Vienna 1880
    • Die Causa Hirschkorn, comedy in one act, Vienna 1882
    • Tabarin, comedy in one act, Vienna 1884
    • Muttersöhnchen, in four acts, Vienna 1885 (Later: "Austoben" by H. Jungmann)
    • Seine Hoheit, comedy in three acts, Vienna 1885
    • Der Flüchtling, comedy in one act, Vienna 1887
    • Wilddiebe, comedy in four acts, in co-authorship with H. Wittmann, Vienna 1888
    • Was wird man sagen?, comedy in four acts, Vienna 1890
    • Die Dame in Schwarz, comedy in four acts, in co-authorship with H. Wittmann, Vienna 1890
    • Prinzen aus Genieland, comedy in four acts, Vienna 1891
    • Die Glosse, comedy in one act, Vienna 1895
    • Das Neue Ghetto, drama in four acts, Vienna 1898. Herzl's only play with Jewish characters.[85] Translated as The New Ghetto by Heinz Norden, New York 1955
    • Unser Kätchen, comedy in four acts, Vienna 1899
    • Gretel, comedy in four acts, Vienna 1899
    • I love you, comedy in one act, Vienna 1900
    • Solon in Lydien, drama in three acts, Vienna 1905
  • Other
    • Herzl, Theodor. Theodor Herzl: Excerpts from His Diaries (2006) 
    • Herzl, Theodor. Philosophische Erzählungen Philosophical Stories (1900), ed. by Carsten Schmidt. new edition Lexikus Publ. 2011, ISBN 978-3-940206-29-9
    • Herzl, Theodor (1922), Volume: 1
    • Herzl, Theodor (1922): , Volume: 2


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bretagne / Breizh / Bertaèyn
Historical province
Flag of Brittany
Coat of arms of Brittany
Coat of arms
Motto: None (de jure)
Historical: Kentoc'h mervel eget bezañ saotret
Rather death than dishonour
Anthem: None (de jure)
De facto "Bro Gozh ma Zadoù"
Old Land of Our Fathers
Localisation Duché de Bretagne.svg
Country France
Largest settlements
 • Total34,023 km2(13,136 sq mi)
Population (2012)
 • Total4,550,418
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 codeFR-E
Brittany (/ˈbrɪtəni/; French: Bretagne [bʁə.taɲ]BretonBreizh, pronounced [bʁɛjs] or [bʁɛχ];[1] GalloBertaèyn, pronounced [bəʁ.taɛɲ]) is a cultural region in the north-west of France. Covering the western part of Armorica, as it was known during the period of Roman occupation, Brittany subsequently became an independent kingdom and then a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province governed as if it were a separate nation under the crown. Brittany has also been referred to as LessLesser or Little Britain (as opposed to Great Britain).[2] It is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Bay of Biscay to the south. Its land area is 34,023 km² (13,136 sq mi).
The historical province of Brittany is now split among five French departments: Finistère in the west, Côtes-d'Armor in the north, Ille-et-Vilaine in the north east, Loire-Atlantique in the south east and Morbihan in the south on the Bay of Biscay. Since reorganisation in 1956, the modern administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80% of historical Brittany. The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region.
At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71% lived in the region of Brittany, while 29% lived in the Loire-Atlantique department. In 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes (897,713 inhabitants), Rennes (690,467 inhabitants), and Brest (314,844 inhabitants).[3] Brittany is the traditional homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations,[4][5][6][7] retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic.[8]

Legends and literature[edit]

The singer-songwriter Théodore Botrel dressed in traditional Breton costume.
Brittany is closely associated with the Matter of Britain and King Arthur. According to WaceBrocéliande is located in Brittany and it is nowadays considered to be Paimpont forest. There, ruins of a castle surrounded by a lake are associated with the Lady of the Lake, a dolmen is said to be Merlin's tomb and a path is presented as Morgan le Fay's Val sans RetourTristan and Iseult are also said to have lived in Brittany. Another major Breton legend is the story about Ys, a city swallowed by the ocean.
Breton literature before the 19th century was mostly oral. The oral tradition entertained by medieval poets died out during the 15th century and books in Breton were very rare before 1850. At that time, local writers started to collect and publish local tales and legends and wrote original works. Published between 1925 and the Second World War, the literary journal Gwalarn favoured a modern Breton literature and helped translating widely known novels into Breton. After the war, the journal Al Liamm pursued that mission. Among the authors writing in Breton are Auguste Brizeux, a Romantic poet, the neo-Druidic bard Erwan BerthouThéodore Hersart de La Villemarqué, who collected the local legends about King ArthurRoparz Hemon, founder of GwalarnPêr-Jakez HeliasGlenmorPêr Denez and Meavenn.
Breton literature in French includes 19th-century historical novels by Émile Souvestre, travel journals by Anatole Le Braz, poems and novels by Charles Le Goffic, the works of the singer-songwriter Théodore Botrel and of the maritime writer Henri Queffélec. Brittany is also the birthplace of many French writers like François-René de ChateaubriandJules VerneErnest RenanFélicité Robert de Lamennais and Pierre Abélard.
The Asterix comics, set during the time of Julius Caesar and written in the second half of the twentieth century, are set in Armorica, now Brittany.


The Museum of Brittany, located in Rennes, was founded in 1856. Its collections are mainly dedicated to the history of the region. Museums dedicated to Prehistory and local megaliths are located in Carnac and Penmarch, while several towns like Vannes and Nantes have a museum presenting their own history.
The Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes owns a large collection of Egyptian, Greek and Roman antiquities as well as drawings and engravings by Domenico GhirlandaioParmigianinoAlbrecht Dürer and Rembrandt. Its French art collection gathers works by Georges de La TourFrançois BoucherPaul GauguinAuguste RodinCamille Corot and Robert Delaunay. It has also works by Pablo PicassoRubensPeter Lely and Paolo Veronese. The collections of the Museum of Fine Arts of Nantes are more dedicated to modern and contemporary art and contain works by Edward Burne-JonesJean-Auguste-Dominique IngresEugène DelacroixGustave CourbetPaul SignacTamara de LempickaWassily KandinskyMax ErnstPierre Soulages and Piero Manzoni. The Museums of Fine Arts of Brest and Quimper offer similar collections, with large quantities of French painting together with the works of some Italian and Dutch artists. The Museum of Fine Arts Pont-Aven is dedicated to the School of Pont-Aven. Contemporary sculptures can be seen in the park around the Château de Kerguéhennec, in Bignan.
Museums in Saint-MaloLorient and Douarnenez are dedicated to ships and maritime traditions and history. The Musée national de la Marine has a large annexe in Brest and a submarine is opened to visitors in Lorient. In the same town, it is also possible to visit the Keroman Submarine Base built in 1942, and the Cité de la voile Éric Tabarly, a museum dedicated to sailing. In Saint-Nazaire, where many transatlantic ships where built, including SS Normandie and SS France, a museum showing transatlantic interiors was installed in a Second World War base. Nantes has a museum dedicated to Jules Verne, a Natural History Museum and a museum of archaeology and design, the Musée Dobrée.

Anatole Le Braz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Anatole Le Braz
Anatole Le Braz portrait 1915.jpg
Born2 April 1859 Edit this on Wikidata
Saint-Servais Edit this on Wikidata
Died20 March 1926 Edit this on Wikidata (aged 66)
Menton Edit this on Wikidata
Alma materUniversity of ParisLycée Saint-Louis Edit this on Wikidata
Occupationliterary historianfolklorist Edit this on Wikidata
EmployerUniversity of Rennes Edit this on Wikidata
AwardsKnight of the Legion of HonourOfficer of the Legion of Honour Edit this on Wikidata
Anatole le Braz, the "Bard of Brittany" (2 April 1859 – 20 March 1926), was a Breton poet, folklore collector and translator. He was highly regarded amongst both European and American scholars, and known for his warmth and charm.[1]


Le Braz was born in Saint-Servais, Côtes-d'Armor, and raised amongst woodcutters and charcoal burners, speaking the Breton language; his parents did not speak French. He spent his holidays in Trégor, which inspired his later work. He began school aged 10 at Saint-Brieuc and progressed swiftly to a degree at the Sorbonne, where he studied for seven years.[1]
He then returned to Brittany, where for 14 years he taught at the Lycée at Quimper and gradually translated old Breton songs into modern French, continuing the folklore work of François-Marie Luzel. He often entertained local peasants and fishermen in the old manor house where he lived, recording their songs and tales. His book, Chansons de la Bretagne ("Songs of Brittany") was awarded a prize by the Académie française.[1]
In 1898, he became president of the Union régionaliste bretonne formed in Morlaix following the Breton festivals. In 1899 he joined the Association des bleus de Bretagne. He was made lecturer and then professor in the Faculty of Arts at Rennes University between 1901 and 1924.
Le Braz was sent on foreign cultural missions by the French Government twenty times. He made several visits to the US, Canada and Switzerland, notably lecturing at Harvard University in 1906, and at Columbia University in 1915. During his 1915 visit he married Henrietta S. Porter of Annapolis, who died in 1919. In 1921 he married Mabel Davison of Manhattan, sister of the famed banker Henry P. Davison.[1] American novelist John Nichols is his great-grandson.[2]
Le Braz died at Menton on the French Riviera. Mourners included the French prime minister, Aristide Briand.[1]


A number of memorials to Le Braz exist in Brittany. A large statue of him with a peasant storyteller was created in Saint-Brieuc, and a memorial stele in Tréguier, both designed by Armel Beaufils.
Great Grand(master)son of Anatole Le Braz, Yann Weymouth!
Great Grand daughter Tina Weymouth of the Talking Heads!!!

Trinitarian Bible Society

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Poster produced by the Society at Chichester Railway Station, West Sussex in 2011.
The Trinitarian Bible Society was founded in 1831 "to promote the Glory of God and the salvation of men by circulating, both at home and abroad, in dependence on the Divine blessing, the Holy Scriptures, which are given by inspiration of God and are able to make men wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus."[1]
The Trinitarian Bible Society members separated from the British and Foreign Bible Society, itself founded in 1804, due to two controversies:
The arguments came into the open during the Annual Meeting in May 1831 of the Society. The membership voted six to one to retain the ecumenical status quo. On December 7, 1831, over two thousand people gathered in Exeter Hall in London to form the Trinitarian Bible Society, explicitly endorsing the Trinitarian position, and rejecting the apocryphal books.

Early years[edit]

Ultra-dispensationalist E. W. Bullinger was clerical secretary of the Society from 1867 until his death in 1913. Activities during his secretariat include:
  • Completion of a Hebrew version of the New Testament under contract with Christian David Ginsburg after the death of Isaac Salkinson. The first edition was published in 1885.
  • Publication of Ginsburg's first edition of the Old Testament along with his Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible in 1897.
  • Formation of the Brittany Evangelical Mission Society under Pasteur LeCoat and translation of the Bible into the Breton language.[2]
  • First Protestant Portuguese Reference Bible.
  • Distribution of Spanish language Bibles in Spain after the Spanish Revolution of 1868.

Later years[edit]

The Society provides Bibles and Christian literature (from a historically Reformed perspective) to the world. They have chapters all over the world.
Their consider their primary function is to translate and disseminate worldwide Bibles in languages other than English. The translation of Bibles into non-English languages is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text and Greek New Testament edition of the Textus Receptus compiled by F. H. A. Scrivener and published in 1894.
The Society sells copies of the King James Version of the Bible, as well as Scriptures in other languages, to the general public. These Scriptures are printed by the Society itself. They also sell or give away Scripture-based Christian literature, such as tracts and children's items in English and other languages.
The Society produces a magazine, The Quarterly Record,[3] and sponsors meetings during which the Society's work and issues surrounding translation and text are discussed.

King James Only[edit]

The Trinitarian Bible Society has been associated with the King-James-Only Movement. However, the Society stated "The Trinitarian Bible Society does not believe the Authorised Version to be a perfect translation, only that it is the best available translation in the English language."[4]
Unlike others in the King James Only movement, the Society claims, "The supernatural power involved in the process of inspiration, and in the result of inspiration, was exerted only in the original production of the sixty-six Canonical books of the Bible (2 Peter 1:20-21; 2 Peter 3:15-16)."
"Translations from the original languages are likewise to be considered the written Word of God in so far as these translations are accurate as to the form and content of the Original."
"Translations made since New Testament times must use words chosen by uninspired men to translate God’s words. For this reason no translation of the Word of God can have an absolute or definitive status. The final appeal must always be to the original languages, in the Traditional Hebrew and Greek texts."[5]

Henry Pomeroy Davison

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Henry Pomeroy Davison, Sr.
Henry Davison.jpg
BornJune 12, 1867
Troy, Pennsylvania
DiedMay 6, 1922 (aged 54)
Locust ValleyNew York
Spouse(s)Mary Kate Trubee
(m. 1893; his death 1922)
ChildrenFrederick Trubee Davison
Henry Pomeroy Davison, Jr.
Alice Trubee Davison
Frances Pomeroy Davison
Parent(s)Henrietta and George B. Davison
Henry Pomeroy Davison, Sr. (June 12, 1867 – May 6, 1922) was an American banker and philanthropist.[1]


Henry Pomeroy Davison was born on June 12, 1867 in Troy, Pennsylvania, the oldest of the four children of Henrietta and George B. Davison. Henry's mother died when he was nine years old in 1877.[2]


After completing his education he became a bookkeeper in a bank managed by one of his relatives, and at age 21 he gained employment at a bank in Bridgeport, Connecticut, the hometown of his wife. Three years later he moved to New York City where he was employed by the Astor Place Bank, and sometime later became president of the Liberty National Bank. Several years later he was involved in the founding and formation of the Bankers Trust Company. In 1909 he became a senior partner at JP Morgan & Company, and in 1910 he was a participant in the secretive meeting on Jekyll IslandGeorgia that may have led to the creation of the Federal Reserve and has generated much speculation over the years.

Involvement with the Red Cross[edit]

With the entry of the United States in World War I in 1917, Davison was named Chairman of the War Council of the American Red Cross. In this capacity, he led a campaign to win financial support for the Red Cross, quickly earning four million dollars used to fund Red Cross ambulances. In recognition of his service he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal and was one of the few civilians so honored.
After the end of the war, he pressed for the creation of an international organization to coordinate the work of the different national Red Cross societies. Based on his recommendations, the League of Red Cross Societies was founded on May 15, 1919 by the societies of Great BritainFranceJapanItaly, and the United States. Davison, wanted the League of Red Cross Societies to supersede the ICRC in controlling the Red Cross action in international affairs . He argued that:
“It should be in reality, and not merely in name an International Committee, a Committee on which there will be representatives from all countries, instead of, as at present, a committee consisting of amiable but somewhat ineffective Geneva gentlemen. That which calls itself ‘international’ has grown rather provincial… New blood, new methods, a new and more comprehensive outlook, these things are necessary.”[3]
The League was established in 1919 with Davison as its chairman. However, “Swiss aloofness or unilateralism was hard to overcome”,[4] with the result that the relationship between the ICRC and the League became, and was to remain, a problem for years to come.

Published works[edit]

In 1919, he also published a book, The American Red Cross in the Great War, describing the wartime activities of the Red Cross. Davison was chairman of the league until his death in 1922.

Personal life[edit]

On April 13, 1893, he married to Kate Trubee (1871–1961). Together, they had two sons, and two daughters:[5]
Davison died on May 6, 1922 under an operation for the removal of a tumor of his brain at the family estate, Peacock Point,[6] in Locust ValleyLong island at the age of 54. This after two failed brain operations. He left the bulk of his estate to his wife to be held in trust.[7]


The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the name of the league since 1991, grants the Henry Davison Award in his memory.


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